Bipolar Disorder is Toxic–Literally

neurons
Credit to flickr.com user Anders Sandberg. Used with permission under a Creative Commons license.

Apparently the blood of people with bipolar disorder is toxic to their brains. Let me explain.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder characterized by changes in mood and energy levels, affecting a sufferer’s ability to function. People affected by the disorder endure periods of both mania–with elevated mood, irritability, and rapid thoughts–and depression.

Lately, researchers have begun classifying patients as early or late-stage. Early-stage patients have dealt with fewer mood episodes; late-stage patients have dealt with more frequent and more severe episodes.

A recent study compared neurons exposed to blood serum from bipolar patients to neurons exposed to blood serum from healthy controls. Researchers Fabio Klamt and Flávio Kapczinski found that the first neurons suffered a significant loss in the density of neurites, which estimate the number of brain connections. However, neurons exposed to serum from early-stage bipolar disorder patients showed no difference in neurite density compared to the healthy controls’. The scientists also found that, except for those neurons exposed to serum from patients at very late stages of the disease, the number of neurons weren’t that different between samples.

Previous studies have shown that people with bipolar disorder have lower neurotrophins–proteins that promote brain growth. Also lowered is the early-growth response 3 (EGR3), a protein which helps the brain cope with stressors such as environmental changes and overstimulation. In addition, another study showed that bipolar patients have abnormally low levels of chemokines–proteins that signal other cells, so reactions to stimuli are slower.

So, what does that all mean? In short: researchers have found definitive proof that the blood of people with bipolar disorder is toxic to their brains. The more mood episodes a person has, the fewer brain connections he or she will create, and the slower their brains will grow. People in later stages of the disease also produce more cells which impair the brain’s ability to deal with environmental changes, inflammation, and stress.

Further studies will concentrate on creating drugs which can offset the toxicity of the bipolar patients’ blood.